Conquest of Istanbul

The siege completed on 29 May 1453 is the conquest of Istanbul. It was conquered by the Ottoman Sultan Fatih Sultan Mehmet.

Conquest of Istanbul was completed as a result of the siege that lasted from 6 April to 29 May. The Ottoman army was called Constantinople. This siege, which ended the Byzantine Empire, started from the Middle Ages to the New Age.

Conquest of Istanbul - Fatih Sultan Mehmet

Conquest of Istanbul — Fatih Sultan Mehmet

How did the conquest of Istanbul take place?

When the Ottoman Empire expanded its territory in the historical process, II. When Mehmet ascended the throne, the area around Istanbul became more complex. The Byzantine Empire tied the Golden Horn to the siege and also reinforced its navy. It is known as Grejuva, which is shown as another defense tool of Byzantium. This vehicle, which did not extinguish in water, could also be used in both land and sea warfare. Food and drink and ammunition were also considered in order to avoid any problems during the siege. The number of soldiers was increased with the guards from various countries. The walls were strengthened. It was reported by the Papacy that 30 ships were being prepared for the voyage and would be supported by 200 soldiers and ammunition. Genoese commander came to help with 700 soldiers. Guistiniani was appointed commander-in-chief and was promised to be given the island of Lymnos if Byzantium triumphed.

Conquest of Istanbul Grejuva

Conquest of Istanbul Grejuva

0 soldiers and ammunition will be supported with the reported. Genoese commander came to help with 700 soldiers. Guistiniani was appointed commander-in-chief and was promised to be given the island of Lymnos if Byzantium triumphed.

Byzantine Defense Plan;

According to the plan, the main element was Istanbul. The city walls of Istanbul were designed only for the offensive attack. Your seashore was completely surrounded by walls. Nowadays the place known as Sarayburnu was completely isolated from the sea at that time.

The Siege Plan of Istanbul;

Heavy cannons were spilled for use by the Ottomans. Among them was a shining ball built by an engineer named Urban, who was kidnapped by the sewers from Byzantine dungeons. It is said to weigh around 550 kg. In order to completely cut off the maritime connection of Istanbul, it was necessary to build Rumeli Fortress against Mehmet II Anadolu Fortress. According to the support of the sea from 25,000, 160,000 troops support was received in figures such as. The Ottoman Navy was also ready for support from the sea. Before the siege, some of the castles around the city were seized.

Fethi Şahi Top of Istanbul

Fethi Şahi Top of Istanbul

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And the Conquest of Istanbul…

On April 6, the Ottoman land army was ready in front of the walls, extending from the Golden Horn to Marmara. He destroyed the suburbs around him before the attack. He selected the weak points of the walls to position the balls. Then two days later, the Ottoman Navy, which was under the command of Baltaoglu Suleyman Pasha, captured Prinkipos Buyukada and Antigoni and a Byzantine castle in Tarabya.

Conquest of Istanbul - Byzantine Castle

Conquest of Istanbul — Byzantine Castle

II. Mehmet sent his beloved Veli Mahmud Pasha to the Emperor Constantine and asked for the surrender of the city. However, he was sworn to protect the city. Constantine, who said he could pay taxes, was faced with Ottoman artillery fire. When a faster ball shot was requested, a ball was shattered and the surrounding people were martyred. Artillery fire continued until April 18.

Conquest of Istanbul Night Attack

Conquest of Istanbul Night Attack

The night offensive began. The first and second ramparts were opened on the sides of Bayrampaşa Creek. With the order of Mehmet II, ditch stones sandbags were filled in front of him. The Ottomans did not get a result from the night offensive. The Ottomans faced a stubborn defense. The sea offensive had also begun. The Ottoman navy, which was stacked in front of the Golden Horn, could not break the chain and had to retreat. The morale of Byzantium rose.

Istanbul's Conquest Haliç Chain Photo: Abdullah Frêres-1891

Istanbul’s Conquest Haliç Chain Photo: Abdullah Frêres-1891

Handling of Ships from Land…

When the attacks on the city failed, the Ottoman fleet broke through and the II. Mehmet met with statesmen and commanders. Candarli Halil Pasha, said the European states would come to help. He proposed lifting the siege and taxing 70,000 ducats. Zağanas Pasha and Mullah Gürani objected. But no one had any idea how to enter the Golden Horn. Mehmet the board 14 years before the throne of the Venetian Commander Gattamelata conducting ships from land, is estimated to be taken from Adige.

Conquest Ships of Istanbul

Conquest Ships of Istanbul

II. Mehmet Diplonsion ordered the Ottoman navy to be shifted to the Golden Horn. In addition, the walls of the Golden Horn to shoot the navy in the Golden Horn around Galata physician hills would be neutralized by placing cannons. The trees were cut down and the roads were made slippery with olive oil. The ships were carried out on the night of 21 — 22 April so that the Byzantines would not notice. A breach was opened to ensure that Byzantium was busy with it. 72 Ottoman ships were successfully executed and the chain that closed the Golden Horn was made dysfunctional.

Conquering Ships of Istanbul

Conquering Ships of Istanbul

The shelling of the Golden Horn walls began. But it was not enough. The conflict continued day and night and the two sides were unable to destroy each other’s cannons. The opening of the breach with fragments falling from the walls of the Ottoman Army was attacked. In this way, the walls were eroded. II. Mehmet launched an offensive on the evening of 6 May. Then he stepped back. After a second attack, he withdrew due to the losses.

Conquest of Istanbul - Ottoman Attack

Conquest of Istanbul — Ottoman Attack

The underground war, known as the war of sewers, began with May 16. The two tunnels collapsed with intentional fire and were damaged on both sides. In the second attack, the Ottomans realized that a fire would be started again, and they themselves set fire and they both died. Then the Byzantine only closed the tunnels, took precautions by not destroying.

Conquest of Istanbul

Conquest of Istanbul

Last Attack and Conquest

Last Attack and Conquest

Last Attack and Conquest

The navy, which was lowered to the Golden Horn, caused the famine that started in the city to prepare for the final attack of the Ottoman army. He sent an envoy to Kosntantin on May 23-24. He wanted them to turn himself in. On re-rejection, this time an army of 3 branches was formed. The conquest of Istanbul took place.